The incidence of brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (BMHCC) is becoming more frequent than that of the past as a result of prolonged survival of patients with HCC. Compared with brain metastases from other types of cancer, BMHCC tends to exhibit a high incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and poor liver function. Unfortunately, the prognosis is extremely poor for patients with BMHCC owing to the limited treatment selection. Currently, optimal treatment requires multidisciplinary approaches including surgery, whole-brain radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery. Besides these traditional approaches, novel treatments such as target therapy and immunotherapy provide an opportunity to improve the survival of these patients. This review provides an overview of the incidence, characteristics, prognosis, and current and potential future management strategies for BMHCC.
Wang, S., Wang, A., Lin, J., Xie, Y., Wu, L., Huang, H., … Huang, J. (2017). Brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma: Recent advances and future avenues. Oncotarget, 8(15), 25814–25829. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.15730