In this paper, we discuss the use of broadband high frequency electromagnetic waves (RF) to non-destructively identify, classify and characterize performance-limiting defects in emerging nanoelectronic devices. As an illustration, the impact of thermal cycling on the RF signal characteristics (insertion loss (S21) and return loss (S11)) is used to infer thermo-mechanical stress-induced defects in metal interconnects. The inferred defects are supported with physical analytical data where possible.
You, L., Okoro, C. A., Ahn, J. J., Kopanski, J., Franklin, R. R., & Obeng, Y. S. (2015). Broadband microwave-based metrology platform development: Demonstration of in-situ failure mode diagnostic capabilities for integrated circuit reliability analyses. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 4(1), N3113–N3117. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0151501jss