Background: The kinetochore attachment (spindle assembly) checkpoint arrests cells in metaphase to prevent exit from mitosis until all the chromosomes are aligned property at the metaphase plate. The checkpoint operates by preventing activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which triggers anaphase by degrading mitotic cyclins and other proteins. This checkpoint is active during normal mitosis and upon experimental disruption of the mitotic spindle. In yeast, the serine/threonine protein kinase Bub1 and the WD-repeat protein Bub3 are elements of a signal transduction cascade that regulates the kinetochore attachment checkpoint. In mammalian cells, activated MAPK is present on kinetochores during mitosis and activity is upregulated by the spindle assembly checkpoint. In vertebrate unfertilized eggs, a special form of meiotic metaphase arrest by cytostatic factor (CSF) is mediated by MAPK activation of the protein kinase p90Rsk, which leads to inhibition of the APC. However, it is not known whether CSF-dependent metaphase arrest caused by p90Rsk involves components of the spindle assembly checkpoint. Results: xBub1 is present in resting oocytes and its protein level increases slightly during oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. In Xenopus oocytes, Bub1 is localized to kinetochores during both meiosis I and meiosis II, and the electrophoretic mobility of Bub1 upon SDS-PAGE decreases during meiosis I, reflecting phosphorylation and activation of the enzyme. The activation of Bub1 can be induced in interphase egg extracts by selective stimulation of the MAPK pathway by c-Mos, a MAPKKK. In oocytes treated with the MEK1 inhibitor U0126, the MAPK pathway does not become activated, and Bub1 remains in its low-activity, unshifted form. Injection of a constitutively active target of MAPK, the protein kinase p90Rsk, restores the activation of Bub1 in the presence of U0126. Moreover, purified p90Rsk phosphorylates Bub1 in vitro and increases its protein kinase activity. Conclusions: Bub1, an upstream component of the kinetochore attachment checkpoint, is activated during meiosis in Xenopus in a MAPK-dependent manner. Moreover, a single substrate of MAPK, p90Rsk, is sufficient to activate Bub1 in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that in vertebrate eggs, kinetochore attachment/spindle assembly checkpoint proteins, including Bub1, are downstream of p90Rsk and may be effectors of APC inhibition and CSF-dependent metaphase arrest by p90Rsk. © Elsevier Science Ltd.
Schwab, M. S., Roberts, B. T., Gross, S. D., Tunquist, B. J., Taieb, F. E., Lewellyn, A. L., & Maller, J. L. (2001). Bub1 is activated by the protein kinase p90Rsk during xenopus oocyte maturation. Current Biology, 11(3), 141–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00045-8