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Food is an integral part of human life, and the composition of our diet is an important determinant of our health and well-being. Food is also the main source of energy and nutrients for the gut microbiota, the 100 trillion cells that coexist inside us. The impact of macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates, and fiber) and specific non-nutrient food components (polyphenols) will be reviewed in the context of gut microbial function and interaction with the host. Colonic microbiota provides diverse enzymatic activities differing from our own, which lead to the production of metabolites essential for key metabolic functions, including carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Certain gut metabolites are specific to microbial activity and confer functionalities beyond energy production, such as signalling cascades across cells, tissues, and organs. Metabolomics has proven to be a useful tool to measure the effects of food on the gut microbiota and its interaction with host metabolism.
Moco, S., & Ross, A. B. (2015). Can We Use Metabolomics to Understand Changes to Gut Microbiota Populations and Function? A Nutritional Perspective. In Molecular and Integrative Toxicology (pp. 83–108). Springer Science+Business Media B.V. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-6539-2_5