Sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by cohesin, is required for accurate chromosome segregation [1, 2]. This process requires acetylation of cohesin subunit SMC3 by evolutionarily conserved cohesin acetyltransferases: Eco1 in budding yeast; XEco1 and XEco2 in Xenopus; and ESCO1 and ESCO2 in human [3–10]. Eco1 is recruited to chromatin through physical interaction with PCNA  and is degraded by the Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein complex after DNA replication to prevent ectopic cohesion formation . In contrast, XEco2 recruitment to chromatin requires prereplication complex formation  and is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) . In human, whereas ESCO1 is expressed throughout the cell cycle, ESCO2 is detectable in S phase and is degraded after DNA replication [6, 15]. Although PDS5, a cohesin regulator, preferentially promotes ESCO1-dependent SMC3 acetylation , little is known about the molecular basis of the temporal regulation of ESCO2. Here, we show that ESCO2 is recruited to chromatin before PCNA accumulation. Whereas no interaction between PCNA and ESCO proteins is observed, ESCO2, but not ESCO1, interacts with the MCM complex through a unique ESCO2 domain. Interestingly, the interaction is required to protect ESCO2 from proteasomal degradation and is attenuated in late S phase. We also found that ESCO2 physically interacts with the CUL4-DDB1-VPRBP E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in late S phase and that post-replicative ESCO2 degradation requires the complex as well as APC. Thus, we propose that the MCM complex couples ESCO2 with DNA replication and that the CUL4-DDB1-VPRBP complex promotes post-replicative ESCO2 degradation, presumably to suppress cohesion formation during mitosis. Sister chromatid cohesion requires ESCO1 and ESCO2, which acetylate cohesin. Minamino et al. show that ESCO2, unlike ESCO1, interacts with the MCM complex on chromatin and the MCM complex protects ESCO2 from proteasomal degradation during S phase. Furthermore, CUL4-DDB1-VPRBP complex and APC promote ESCO2 degradation after DNA replication.
Minamino, M., Tei, S., Negishi, L., Kanemaki, M. T., Yoshimura, A., Sutani, T., … Shirahige, K. (2018). Temporal Regulation of ESCO2 Degradation by the MCM Complex, the CUL4-DDB1-VPRBP Complex, and the Anaphase-Promoting Complex. Current Biology, 28(16), 2665-2672.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.06.037