Background and aims: Every year, in Europe, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is diagnosed in thousands of adults. For most subtypes of AML, the backbone of treatment was introduced nearly 40 years ago as a combination of cytosine arabinoside with an anthracycline. This therapy is still the worldwide standard of care. Two-thirds of patients achieve complete remission, although most of them ultimately relapse. Since the FLT3 mutation is the most frequent, it serves as a key molecular target for tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that inhibit FLT3 kinase. In this study, we report the conjugation of TKIs onto spherical gold nanoparticles. Materials and methods: The internalization of TKI-nanocarriers was proved by the strongly scattered light from gold nanoparticles and was correlated with the results obtained by transmission electron microscopy and dark-field microscopy. The therapeutic effect of the newly designed drugs was investigated by several methods including cell counting assay as well as the MTT assay. Results: We report the newly described bioconjugates to be superior when compared with the drug alone, with data confirmed by state-of-the-art analyses of internalization, cell biology, gene analysis for FLT3-IDT gene, and Western blotting to assess degradation of the FLT3 protein. Conclusion: The effective transmembrane delivery and increased efficacy validate its use as a potential therapeutic.
Petrushev, B., Boca, S., Simon, T., Berce, C., Frinc, I., Dima, D., … Berindan-Neagoe, I. (2016). Gold nanoparticles enhance the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in acute myeloid leukemia therapy. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 11, 641–660. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S94064