This article presents the nonlinear mathematical modeling of a proportional valve. In order to be able to determine the external and internal technical characteristics of the valve through experimental measurements of its parameters, it is possible to model and determine the parameters; however, it varies due to its aging effects and causes the system to respond incorrectly. Once the measurements were made it was possible to know that the model obtained experimentally approximates with the technical data of the manufacturer.
Tenesaca, J., Carpio, M., Saltaren, R., & Portilla, G. (2018). Experimental determination of the nonlinear model for a proportional hydraulic valve. In 2017 IEEE International Autumn Meeting on Power, Electronics and Computing, ROPEC 2017 (Vol. 2018-January, pp. 1–4). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. https://doi.org/10.1109/ROPEC.2017.8261602