Background: Chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) is a source of much morbidity and mortality. Eradication of early PA infection is possible, but can recur in many individuals. We sought to examine strategies to delay the time to PA recurrence in people with CF. Objectives: To establish whether secondary prevention strategies, using antibiotics or other therapies, increase the chances of people with CF remaining free from PA infection following successful eradication therapy. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched ongoing trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Date of last search: 21 August 2019. Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials (and quasi-randomised trials where the risk of bias was low) comparing any treatment modality aimed at preventing recurrence of PA infection with placebo, standard therapy or any other treatment modality in people with CF who have undergone successful eradication of PA. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias. Quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Conflicts were resolved by discussion and the opinion of a third review author was sought where necessary. Only a subset of participants in the included trial were eligible, therefore individual participant data were requested and obtained from the trial investigators. Main results: We included one trial (n = 306) in the review; however, only 253 participants had undergone successful eradication of PA, so fulfilling the inclusion criteria for our review. Information presented relates only to the included subset of participants. The trial recruited children aged one to 12 years (mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of 5.8 (3.5) years), 129 participants (51.0%) were female and the median follow-up was 494 days. We compared cycled therapy with tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS), in which participants underwent 28 days of TIS every three months, with culture-based therapy, in which participants were only prescribed medication when a quarterly sputum sample was positive for PA. Reasons for downgrading the quality of the evidence included applicability (only included children), incomplete outcome data and a small number of participants. The time to next isolation of PA was probably shorter with cycled TIS therapy than with culture-based therapy, hazard ratio (HR) 2.04 days (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 to 3.26) (moderate-quality evidence). This is in contrast to the main publication of the only included trial, which examined rate of PA positivity rather than time to PA infection and included participants not eligible for inclusion in this review. At the end of the trial, there was no difference between the cycled and culture-based groups in the change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) L, mean difference (MD) 0.0 L (95% CI -0.09 to 0.09) or in FEV1 % predicted, MD 0.70% (95% CI -4.33 to 5.73) (both very low-quality evidence). There was no difference in the change from baseline for FVC between the groups. There was also no difference in the frequency of pulmonary exacerbations between groups, MD -0.18 (95% CI -0.51 to 0.14) (moderate-quality evidence). Similarly, there was no difference between groups in the risk of participants developing novel resistant bacteria, RR 1.00 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.5) (moderate-quality evidence). There were more severe adverse events in the cycled group, but the type of treatment probably makes little or no difference to the results, RR 0.65 (95% CI 0.39 to 1.11) (moderate-quality evidence). There was no difference between groups in the change in weight or height from baseline or in rates of adherence to tobramycin or all trial medicines. The included trial did not assess changes in quality of life, the time to chronic infection with PA or the cost-effectiveness of treatment. Authors' conclusions: Cycled TIS therapy may be beneficial in prolonging the time to recurrence of PA after successful eradication, but further trials are required, specifically addressing this question and in both adults and children.
Palser, S., Smith, S., Nash, E. F., Agarwal, A., & Smyth, A. R. (2019, December 17). Treatments for preventing recurrence of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012300.pub2