Caídas en adultos mayores institucionalizados: Descripción y evaluación geriátrica

ISSN: 00349887
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Abstract

Background: Falls are an important cause of disability and mortality among elderly subjects. Aim: To study the features and incidence of falls in institutionalized elderly subjects. Patients and methods: Prospective recording of all falls, occurring in a period of eight months, to 453 subjects older than 60 years, living a home for the elderly. Evaluation of functional status of subjects suffering falls, using the Spanish Red Cross score. One hundred and two subjects living in the same place, but not suffering falls, were considered as controls. Results: One hundred and three subjects, aged 80±6 years (24% of the sample) suffered falls. Most falls were during the day and while walking. Seventy percent of subjects suffering falls did not have a history of previous falls. Nine percent of those falling, suffered a fracture. Compared to controls, falling subjects had a more deteriorated functional and mental status and consumed more benzodiazepines and neuroleptics. Conclusions: There is an association between functional status and psychotropic medication consumption and the incidence of falls in institutionalized elderly subjects (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 887-94). L a población de adultos mayores (AM) en nuestro país es de alrededor de 1.300.000 personas, lo que corresponde a 9,0% de la pobla-ción total (según censo de 1992) y se proyecta que para el año 2025 será 3.600.000 1 , por lo que cada vez es de mayor importancia el adecuado conoci-miento de los problemas biomédicos-sociales que afectan a este grupo de personas. Internacionalmente se ha comunicado que, en los adultos mayores que consultan en un policlínico general, hay cuatro síndromes que con frecuencia los médicos no pesquisan. Estos son los llamados «gigantes de la geriatría: incontinencia urinaria, de-mencia, inmovilidad y caídas» 2 . La caída definida como «un evento involuntario que precipita a la persona a un nivel inferior o al suelo» es un

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Gac E, H., Marín L, P. P., Castro H, S., Hoyl M, T., & Valenzuela A, E. (2003). Caídas en adultos mayores institucionalizados: Descripción y evaluación geriátrica. Revista Medica de Chile, 131(8), 887–894.

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