The objective of this study was to determine the role of CAGE, a cancer/testis antigen, in resistance of non-small cell lung cancers to anti-cancer drugs. Erlotinib-resistant PC-9 cells (PC-9/ER) with EGFR mutations (ex 19 del + T790M of EGFR), showed higher level of autophagic flux than parental sensitive PC-9 cells. Erlotinib and osimertinib increased autophagic flux and induced the binding of CAGE to Beclin1 in PC-9 cells. The inhibition or induction of autophagy regulated the binding of CAGE to Beclin1 and the responses to anticancer drugs. CAGE showed binding to HER2 while HER2 was necessary for binding of CAGE to Beclin1. CAGE was responsible for high level of autophagic flux and resistance to anti-cancer drugs in PC-9/ER cells. A peptide corresponding to the DEAD box domain of CAGE, 266AQTGTGKT273, enhanced the sensitivity of PC-9/ER cells to erlotinib and osimertinib, inhibited the binding of CAGE to Beclin1 and regulated autophagic flux in PC-9/ER cells. Mutant CAGE-derived peptide 266AQTGTGAT273 or 266AQTGTGKA273 did not affect autophagic flux or the binding of CAGE to Beclin1. AQTGTGKT peptide showed binding to CAGE, but not to Beclin1. FITC-AQTGTGKT peptide showed co-localization with CAGE. AQTGTGKT peptide decreased tumorigenic potentials of PC-9/ER and H1975 cells, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with EGFR mutation (L885R/T790M), by inhibiting autophagic fluxand inhibiting the binding of CAGE to Beclin1. AQTGTGKT peptide also enhanced the sensitivity of H1975 cells to anticancer drugs. AQTGTGKT peptide showed tumor homing potential based on ex vivo homing assays of xenograft of H1975 cells. AQTGTGKT peptide restored expression levels of miR-143-3p and miR-373-5p, decreased autophagic flux and conferred sensitivity to anticancer drugs. These results present evidence that combination of anticancer drug with CAGE-derived peptide could overcome resistance of non-small cell lung cancers to anti-cancer drugs.
Yeon, M., Byun, J., Kim, H., Kim, M., Jung, H. S., Jeon, D., … Jeoung, D. (2018). CAGE Binds to Beclin1, Regulates Autophagic Flux and CAGE-Derived Peptide Confers Sensitivity to Anticancer Drugs in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cells. Frontiers in Oncology, 8(DEC). https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2018.00599