© 2016 Xiao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Introduction: Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (SECC) and the maternal relatedness. Meth ods: Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. MFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral xam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a uestionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. . albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ ube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium nd identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction ndonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus equence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4Results: A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers ( > 80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p < 0.01) and caries severity (p < 0.05). The levels of C. albicans in the prepared saliva and plaque sample (1ml resuspension) of S-ECC children were 1.3 ± 4.5 x10 4 cfu/ml and 1.2 ± 3.5 x10 4 cfu/ml (∼3-log higher vs. caries-free children). Among 18 childmother pairs, > 60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from > 65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to caspofungin in spot assay, while no caspofungin resistant strains were seen when compared with C. albicans wild-type strain SC5314. Interestingly, the regression analysis showed that factors such as antibiotic usage, birth weight, inhaler use, brushing frequency, and daycare attendance had no significant effect on the oral carriage of C. albicans in the S-ECC children. Conclusions: Our results reveal that both the child with S-ECC and the mother were highly infected with C. albicans, while most of the strains were genetically related, suggesting that the mother might be a source for C. albicans acquisition in the oral cavity of children affected by the disease.
Xiao, J., Moon, Y., Li, L., Rustchenko, E., Wakabayashi, H., Zhao, X., … Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D. T. (2016). Candida Albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and maternal relatedness. PLoS ONE, 11(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164242