BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an heterogeneous disease. Three carcinogenic pathways determine its molecular profile: microsatellite instability (MSI), chromosomal instability (CIN) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Based on the new molecular classification, four consensus CRC molecular subtypes (CMS) are established, which are related to clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of the tumor. AIM To classify Chilean patients with sporadic CRC according to the new consensus molecular subtypes of carcinogenic pathways. MATERIAL AND METHODS Prospective analytical study of 53 patients with a mean age of 70 years (55% males) with CRC, operated at a private clinic, without neoadjuvant treatment. From normal and tumor tissue DNA of each patient, CIN, MSI and CIMP were analyzed. Combining these variables, tumors were classified as CMS1/MSI-immune, CMS2/canonical, CMS3/metabolic and CMS4/mesenchymal. RESULTS CMS1 tumors (19%) were located in the right colon, were in early stages, had MMR complex deficiencies and 67% had an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene. CMS2 tumors (31%) were located in the left colon, had moderate differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, lymphatic and mucin. CMS3 tumors (29%) were also left-sided, with absence of vascular and lymphatic invasion, and 29% had an activating mutation of the KRAS oncogene. CMS4 tumors (21%) showed advanced stages and presence of metastases. CONCLUSIONS This new molecular classification contributes to understanding the heterogeneity of tumors. It is possible to differentiate molecular subgroups of a single pathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, opening the door to personalized medicine.
Wielandt, A. M., Villarroel, C., Hurtado, C., Simian, D., Zamorano, D., Martínez, M., … López-Kostner, F. (2017). Caracterización de pacientes con cancer colorrectal esporádico basado en la nueva subclasificación molecular de consenso. Revista Medica de Chile, 145(4), 419–430. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872017000400001