Background. Infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens resistant to carbapenems have limited treatment options and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the rates, infection sources, and pathogen types associated with carbapenem-nonsusceptible (Carb-NS) Gram-negative isolates in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU settings in a large US hospital database. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of carbapenem susceptibility of all nonduplicate isolates of Gram-negative pathogens collected from January 1, 2017, to December 31, 2017, at 358 US hospitals in the BD Insights Research Database. Carb-NS isolates included all pathogens reported at the institutional level as intermediate or resistant. Results. Of 312 075 nonduplicate Gram-negative isolates, 10 698 (3.4%) were Carb-NS. Respiratory samples were the most frequent source of Carb-NS isolates (35.2%); skin/wound accounted for 23.6%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common Carb-NS pathogen (58.5% of isolates), and about 30% were Enterobacteriaceae. The highest rates of Carb-NS were found in Acinetobacter spp. (35.6%) and P. aeruginosa (14.6%). The rate of Carb-NS was significantly higher in ICU (5.4%) vs non-ICU settings (2.7%; P < .0001 in univariate analysis). This difference remained significant in multivariable analysis after adjusting for infection and hospital characteristics (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.56; P < .0001). Conclusions. Infections caused by Carb-NS isolates pose a significant clinical problem across different sources of infection, species of pathogen, and hospital settings. Widespread infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship initiatives, in combination with new treatment options, may be required to reduce the burden of carbapenem resistance in health care settings.
McCann, E., Srinivasan, A., Andrew DeRyke, C., Ye, G., DePestel, D. D., Murray, J., & Gupta, V. (2018). Carbapenem-nonsusceptible Gram-negative pathogens in ICU and non-ICU settings in US hospitals in 2017: A multicenter study. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 5(10). https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy241