Flexible carbon fibre implants have been used in 40 cases of chronic ankle instability. The carbon fibre implant permits retention of inversion, does not interfere with peroneal function and is simple to insert. Thirty-seven cases were available for review 46 months after surgery. In 35 cases normal stability had been restored, and 22 patients continued to have an excellent result when reviewed. In 13 cases the implant was subsequently removed, and where no other stabilizing operation was carried out instability recurred. The problems necessitating implant removal have been recognized, and the technique modified to prevent their recurring. © 1988.
Freedman, L. S., Jenkins, A. I. R., & Jenkins, D. H. R. (1988). Carbon fibre reinforcement for chronic lateral ankle instability. Injury, 19(1), 25–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-1383(88)90169-6