© 2014 Chigaev et al.Background: Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme degradation, is attracting growing attention from the scientific community. At physiological concentrations, CO plays a role as a signal messenger that regulates a number of physiological processes. CO releasing molecules are under evaluation in preclinical models for the management of inflammation, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and organ transplantation. Because of our discovery that nitric oxide signaling actively down-regulates integrin affinity and cell adhesion, and the similarity between nitric oxide and CO-dependent signaling, we studied the effects of CO on integrin signaling and cell adhesion. Results: We used a cell permeable CO releasing molecule (CORM-2) to elevate intracellular CO, and a fluorescent Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4, αβ-integrin)-specific ligand to evaluate the integrin state in real-time on live cells. We show that the binding of the ligand can be rapidly down-modulated in resting cells and after inside-out activation through several Gα-coupled receptors. Moreover, cell treatment with hemin, a natural source of CO, resulted in comparable VLA-4 ligand dissociation. Inhibition of VLA-4 ligand binding by CO had a dramatic effect on cell-cell interaction in a VLA-4/VCAM-1-dependent cell adhesion system. Conclusions: We conclude that the CO signaling pathway can rapidly down-modulate binding of the VLA-4-specific ligand. We propose that CO-regulated integrin deactivation provides a basis for modulation of immune cell adhesion as well as rapid cell mobilization, for example as shown for splenic monocytes in response to surgically induced ischemia of the myocardium.
Chigaev, A., Smagley, Y., & Sklar, L. A. (2014). Carbon monoxide down-regulates α4β1 integrin-specific ligand binding and cell adhesion: A possible mechanism for cell mobilization. BMC Immunology, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12865-014-0052-1