Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular hemodynamic effects of Red Bull® Energy Drink during prolonged, simulated, monotonous driving. Methods: This was a double-blind, within-subjects-design, crossover study. Twelve healthy volunteers (21.7 ± 0.8 years old) experienced each of three conditions at various times: 1) consumption of Red Bull® Energy Drink; 2) consumption of placebo-controlled drink; and 3) no test drink. All subjects undertook 90-min periods of simulated monotonous driving, during which physiological measurements were made. The variables recorded were cardiovascular indices, i.e., mean blood pressure (MBP), cardiac output (CO), electrocardiogram RR interval (RR), total peripheral-vascular resistance (TPR: = MBP/CO), and normalized pulse volume (NPV). Additional parameters were the standard deviation of lateral position, i.e., the weaving of the car, and subjective rating of sleepiness. Results: CO, RR, and TPR during the monotonous task were significantly different in those consuming the energy drink as compared with those receiving the placebo and as compared with no drink values. The energy drink elicited a cardiac-dominant reaction pattern, while the other conditions demonstrated the vascular-dominant reaction pattern typically observed in monotonous driving tasks. The observed differences indicate the cardiovascular system being more aroused with the energy drink. Conclusion: The effects of Red Bull® Energy Drink were reflected in cardiovascular hemodynamic phenomena especially to the heart function, and we conclude that consumption of this drink before long-distance driving in non-sleepy drivers could facilitate more physiologically active, and possibly safer, driving. © 2013 Yamakoshi et al.
Yamakoshi, T., Matsumura, K., Hanaki, S., & Rolfe, P. (2013). Cardiovascular hemodynamic effects of Red Bull® Energy Drink during prolonged, simulated, monotonous driving. SpringerPlus, 2(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-215