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Using Global Navigation Satellite System–Acoustic (GNSS-A) technique, we have been developing observation system on a moored buoy for continuous monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation. The sound speed structure near a warm current has heterogeneity, which is the main cause of a seafloor positioning error. Assuming a sloping structure, previous studies proposed sound speed model to reduce positioning error. We examined the validity of the model by comparing the estimated structure with the actual structure measured at multiple points around our observation site. The result shows that the gradient parameter estimated from GNSS-A data acquired by vessel is appropriate. The numerical examination indicates that modeling error caused by the misinterpretation of the depth of gradient layer occurs, and it can be suppressed by performing acoustic ranging at the point near the centroid of units. From the calculation of estimation error of sound speed variation, the predicted acoustic ranging error observed using the moored buoy staying near the centroid is 9.0 cm or below. Therefore, seafloor displacement can be detected with centimeter class via moored buoy in the basin of a warm current. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Kinugasa, N., Tadokoro, K., Kato, T., & Terada, Y. (2020). Estimation of temporal and spatial variation of sound speed in ocean from GNSS-A measurements for observation using moored buoy. Progress in Earth and Planetary Science, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645-020-00331-5