Background: Thalidomide, one of whose activities is to inhibit Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α production, has been reported to be an effective treatment for refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). TNF-α driven production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 by gut lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) is a major pathway of tissue injury in IBD; however the effect of thalidomide and newer more potent immunomodulatory derivatives on this pathway has not been studied. Aim: To investigate the effect of thalidomide, CC-4047 (pomalidomide), CC-5013 (lenalidomide), and CC-10004 (apremilast) on gut LPMC TNFα and MMP-3 production in patients with IBD. Methods: Gut LPMCs and myofibroblasts were isolated from patients with IBD, and cultured with thalidomide, CC-4047, CC-5013, and CC-10004. MMP-3 and TIMP-1 levels were determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, and TNF-α levels by ELISA. Results: CC-10004 significantly reduced both TNF-α production and MMP-3 production by cultured LPMCs. Thalidomide and CC-4047 and CC-5013 had no significant effect on the production of TNF-α or MMP-3 by LPMCs. Conclusion: These results provides a mechanistic rationale for both the failure of lenalidomide (CC-5013) in a recent randomised controlled trial in Crohn's disease, and for the evaluation of CC-10004 as a novel oral therapy in the treatment of CD and UC. © 2009 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation.
Gordon, J. N., Prothero, J. D., Thornton, C. A., Pickard, K. M., Di Sabatino, A., Goggin, P. M., … MacDonald, T. T. (2009). CC-10004 but not thalidomide or lenalidomide inhibits lamina propria mononuclear cell TNF-α and MMP-3 production in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, 3(3), 175–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crohns.2009.03.001