Extensively drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDR-PA) strains with limited or absent residual antimicrobial susceptibility cause a growing burden of difficult-to treat infections. Treatment options are even more limited for patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, as colistin-based regimens are hampered by poor blood brain barrier penetration, being often associated with insufficient clinical and microbiological success. New treatment options are awaited, but evidence from prospective evidence-based evaluations is still lacking. Here we report a case of breakthrough otogenous meningitis caused by XDR-PA in a young patient treated with meropenem and colistin for XDR-PA bloodstream infection and pneumonia after a car-crash polytrauma. The patient was treated with off-label, high-dose ceftolozane-tazobactam and high-dose fosfomycin after characterization of CNS XDR-PA isolates, with rapid clinical and microbiological resolution of meningitis. Our experience, although based on a single case, lands preliminary support to the concept that rescue regimens including ceftolozane-tazobactam and fosfomycin may be considered for XDR-PA CNS infections in patients without alternative therapeutic options.
Frattari, A., Savini, V., Polilli, E., Cibelli, D., Talamazzi, S., Bosco, D., … Parruti, G. (2018). Ceftolozane-tazobactam and Fosfomycin for rescue treatment of otogenous meningitis caused by XDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Case report and review of the literature. IDCases, 14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2018.e00451