Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in antiviral response by recognizing viral components. Recently, a RNA helicase, RIG-I, was also suggested to recognize viral double-stranded RNA. However, how these molecules contribute to viral recognition in vivo is poorly understood. We show by gene targeting that RIG-I is essential for induction of type I interferons (IFNs) after infection with RNA viruses in fibroblasts and conventional dendritic cells (DCs). RIG-I induces type I IFNs by activating IRF3 via IκB kinase-related kinases. In contrast, plasmacytoid DCs, which produce large amounts of IFN-α, use the TLR system rather than RIG-I for viral detection. Taken together, RIG-I and the TLR system exert antiviral responses in a cell type-specific manner. Copyright ©2005 by Elsevier Inc.
Kato, H., Sato, S., Yoneyama, M., Yamamoto, M., Uematsu, S., Matsui, K., … Akira, S. (2005). Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response. Immunity, 23(1), 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2005.04.010