Background: The therapeutic activities of Andrographis paniculata are attributed to four major active diterpenoids: andrographolide (AP 1 ), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (AP 3 ), neoandrographolide (AP 4 ), and 14-deoxyandrographolide (AP 6 ). This study aims to quantify the four active diterpenoids in various plant organs of A. paniculata at different growth stages in greenhouse and field experiments, with a developed HPLC-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for simultaneous determination of these diterpenoids.Methods: Plants were grown in greenhouse and in field conditions, harvested at different growth stages, and separated into different organs for determination of the four active diterpenoids by an HPLC-DAD method.Results: The most abundant diterpenoid was AP 6 between seedling and vegetative stages in the greenhouse experiment (13.38 to 23.71 mg/g in 2006 and 10.67 to 24.54 mg/g in 2007). High levels of AP 6 were also detected in leaves at the transfer stage in the greenhouse experiment (36.05 ± 0.69 mg/g) and field experiment (30.59 ± 1.39 mg/g). The levels of AP 6 then decreased as plants matured. The highest content of AP 4 was in cotyledons (16.65 ± 4.48 mg/g) at the transfer stage. The highest contents of AP 1 were detected in leaves at seed-forming stage in greenhouse experiment (24.72 ± 1.89 mg/g) and vegetative stage in field experiment (43.16 ± 0.92 mg/g). Flowers of A. paniculata contained high levels of AP 1 (21.42 ± 3.74 mg/g). AP 3 and AP 4 were at low levels in leaves at all growth stages.Conclusion: In A. paniculata, AP 6 was at the highest level in leaves at transfer stage in both greenhouse and field experiments. AP 1 was at the highest level in leaves at vegetative stage and seed-forming stage in field and greenhouse experiments, respectively. The contents of AP 3 and AP 4 in leaves were low at all growth stages. © 2013 Pholphana et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Pholphana, N., Rangkadilok, N., Saehun, J., Ritruechai, S., & Satayavivad, J. (2013). Changes in the contents of four active diterpenoids at different growth stages in Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees (Chuanxinlian). Chinese Medicine (United Kingdom), 8(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8546-8-2