Characteristics, aetiological spectrum and management of valvular heart disease in a Tunisian cardiovascular centre

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Abstract

Background Valvular heart diseases occur frequently in Tunisia, but no precise statistics are available. Aim To analyse the characteristics of patients with abnormal valvular structure and function, and to identify the aetiological spectrum, treatment and outcomes of valvular heart disease in a single cardiovascular centre in Tunisia. Methods This retrospective study included patients with abnormal valvular structure and function, who were screened by transthoracic echocardiography at a single cardiology department between January 2010 and December 2013. Data on baseline characteristics, potential aetiology, treatment strategies and discharge outcomes were collected from medical records. Results There were 959 patients with a significant valvular heart disease (mean age 53 ± 17 years; female/male ratio 0.57). Valvular heart disease was native in 77% of patients. Mitral stenosis was the most frequent lesion (44.1%), followed by multiple valve disease (22.3%). Rheumatic origin (66.6%) was the most frequent aetiology, followed by degenerative (17.2%) or ischaemic (8.1%) causes, endocarditis (1.4%) and congenital (0.9%) causes. Native valve disease was severe in 589 patients (61.4%). Percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty was performed in 36.9% of patients with mitral stenosis. Among patients with severe valvular heart disease, surgical treatment was indicated for 446 (75.7%) patients. Only 161 (36.1%) patients were finally operated. Postoperative mortality was 13.6% for all valvular heart diseases. Conclusion This retrospective study has shown that the main cause of valvular heart disease in Tunisia is rheumatic fever. Mitral stenosis and multiple valve disease are the most frequent valvular heart diseases in Tunisia. Percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty and prosthetic valve replacement are the preferred treatment methods for valvular heart disease.

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Triki, F., Jdidi, J., Abid, D., Tabbabi, N., Charfeddine, S., Ben Kahla, S., … Kammoun, S. (2017). Characteristics, aetiological spectrum and management of valvular heart disease in a Tunisian cardiovascular centre. Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases, 110(8–9), 439–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2016.08.003

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