Detailed chemical equilibrium analysis based on minimisation of Gibbs Energy is conducted to illustrate the benefits of integrating sorption enhancement (SE) and chemical looping (CL) together with the conventional catalytic steam reforming (C-SR) process for hydrogen production from a typical shale gas feedstock. CaO (S) was chosen as the CO 2 sorbent and Ni/NiO is the oxygen transfer material (OTM) doubling as steam reforming catalyst. Up to 49% and 52% rise in H 2 yield and purity respectively were achieved with SE-CLSR with a lower enthalpy change compared to C-SR at S:C 3 and 800 K. A minimum energy of 159 kJ was required to produce 1 mol of H 2 at S:C 3 and 800 K in C-SR process, this significantly dropped to 34 kJ/mol of produced H 2 in the CaO (S) /NiO system at same operating condition without regeneration of the sorbent, when the energy of regenerating the sorbent at 1170 K was included, the enthalpy rose to 92 kJ/mol H 2 , i.e., significantly lower than the Ca-free system. The presence of inert bed materials in the reactor bed such as catalyst support or degraded CO 2 sorbent introduced a very substantial heating burden to bring these materials from reforming temperature to sorbent regeneration temperature or to Ni oxidation temperature. The choice of S:C ratio in conditions of excess steam represents a compromise between the higher H 2 yield and purity and lower risk of coking, balanced by the increased enthalpy cost of raising excess steam.
S G Adiya, Z. I., Dupont, V., & Mahmud, T. (2017). Chemical equilibrium analysis of hydrogen production from shale gas using sorption enhanced chemical looping steam reforming. Fuel Processing Technology, 159, 128–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2017.01.026