Chemical-Looping Combustion of solid fuels has been studied for ten years and significant progress has been made. The paper discusses operational experiences and various aspects of up-scaling, including similarities to fluidized-bed combustion, key challenges, cost structure and strategies for reducing costs for demonstration. Based on more than 9000 h of CLC operation in 34 pilots, of which >3000 h with solid fuels, it is concluded that there are oxygen carrier materials suitable for solid fuels, and that the technology should be ready for scale-up.
Lyngfelt, A., & Linderholm, C. (2017). Chemical-Looping Combustion of Solid Fuels - Status and Recent Progress. In Energy Procedia (Vol. 114, pp. 371–386). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1179