Cell-free synthesis, a method for the rapid expression of proteins, is increasingly used to study interactions of complex biological systems. GFP and its variants have become indispensable for fluorescence studies in live cells and are equally attractive as reporters for cell-free systems. This work investigates the use of fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) as a tool for quantitative analysis of protein interactions in cell-free expression systems. We also explore chromophore maturation of fluorescent proteins, which is of crucial importance for fluorescence studies. A droplet sample protocol was developed that ensured sufficient oxygenation for chromophore maturation and ease of manipulation for titration studies. The kinetics of chromophore maturation of EGFP, EYFP, and mCherry were analyzed as a function of temperature. A strong increase in the rate from room temperature to 37 °C was observed. We further demonstrate that all EGFP proteins fully mature in the cell-free solution and that brightness is a robust parameter specifying stoichiometry. Finally, FFS is applied to study the stoichiometry of the nuclear transport factor 2 in a cell-free system over a broad concentration range. We conclude that combining cell-free expression and FFS provides a powerful technique for quick, quantitative study of chromophore maturation and protein-protein interaction. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MacDonald, P. J., Chen, Y., & Mueller, J. D. (2012). Chromophore maturation and fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy of fluorescent proteins in a cell-free expression system. Analytical Biochemistry, 421(1), 291–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2011.10.040