Chronic kidney disease currently affects one in nine Americans and over 500,000 have progressed to failure requiring kidney replacement therapy, with nearly 45% being women. Clinical Practice Guidelines have been developed in an effort to synthesize the latest literature, particularly randomized controlled trials, to assist clinical decision making. Women have different levels of kidney function than men at the same level of serum creatinine and may also lose kidney function over time more slowly than men. Although the arteriovenous fistulae have long been recognized as the preferred access for hemodialysis, women are less likely to initiate dialysis with an arteriovenous fistula in place. In addition, the female sex is regarded as a risk factor for access failure as well for complications such as steal. This article reviews treatment of women with chronic kidney disease, focusing on the difficulties they are perceived to have with dialysis access. Copyright © 2013 by the Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pounds, L. L., & Teodorescu, V. J. (2013). Chronic kidney disease and dialysis access in women. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 57(4 SUPPL.), 49S-53S.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2012.10.117