Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects multiple body systems and presents with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Proper application of conservative medical management can profoundly affect the clinical course of CKD. Diagnosis and management is facilitated by staging CKD and applying therapies that are appropriate for the patient's stage of CKD. Therapy and follow-up of CKD are described, with emphasis on stage-based therapy to ameliorate clinical signs and slow progression. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Polzin, D. J. (2011, January). Chronic Kidney Disease in Small Animals. Veterinary Clinics of North America - Small Animal Practice. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2010.09.004