Introduction: Preclinical studies have shown that the endogenous nucleoside adenosine prevents excessive tissue injury during systemic inflammation. We aimed to study whether endogenous adenosine also limits tissue injury in a human in vivo model of systemic inflammation. In addition, we studied whether subjects with the common 34C > T nonsense variant (rs17602729) of adenosine monophosphate deaminase (AMPD1), which predicts increased adenosine formation, have less inflammation-induced injury.Methods: In a randomized double-blinded design, healthy male volunteers received 2 ng/kg E. Coli LPS intravenously with (n = 10) or without (n = 10) pretreatment with the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (4 mg/kg body weight). In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to 10 subjects heterozygous for the AMPD1 34C > T variant.Results: The increase in adenosine levels tended to be more pronounced in the subjects heterozygous for the AMPD1 34C > T variant (71 ± 22%, P=0.04), compared to placebo- (59 ± 29%, P=0.012) and caffeine-treated (53 ± 47%, P=0.29) subjects, but this difference between groups did not reach statistical significance. Also the LPS-induced increase in circulating cytokines was similar in the LPS-placebo, LPS-caffeine and LPS-AMPD1-groups. Endotoxemia resulted in an increase in circulating plasma markers of endothelial activation [intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)], and in subclinical renal injury, measured by increased urinary excretion of tubular injury markers. The LPS-induced increase of these markers did not differ between the three groups.Conclusions: Human experimental endotoxemia induces an increase in circulating cytokine levels and subclinical endothelial and renal injury. Although the plasma adenosine concentration is elevated during systemic inflammation, co-administration of caffeine or the presence of the 34C > T variant of AMPD1 does not affect the observed subclinical organ damage, suggesting that adenosine does not affect the inflammatory response and subclinical endothelial and renal injury during human experimental endotoxemia.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT00513110.. © 2011 Ramakers et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Ramakers, B. P., Riksen, N. P., van den Broek, P., Franke, B., Peters, W. H. M., van der Hoeven, J. G., … Pickkers, P. (2011). Circulating adenosine increases during human experimental endotoxemia but blockade of its receptor does not influence the immune response and subsequent organ injury. Critical Care, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/cc9400