© 2015 Colquhoun et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Biological processes that govern bacterial proliferation and survival in the host-environment (s) are likely to be vastly different from those that are required for viability in nutrient-rich laboratory media. Consequently, growth-based antimicrobial screens performed in conditions modeling aspects of bacterial disease states have the potential to identify new classes of antimicrobials that would be missed by screens performed in conventional laboratory media. Accordingly, we performed screens of the Selleck library of 853 FDA approved drugs for agents that exhibit antimicrobial activity toward the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii during growth in human serum, lung surfactant, and/or the organism in the biofilm state and compared those results to that of conventional laboratory medium. Results: revealed that a total of 90 compounds representing 73 antibiotics and 17 agents that were developed for alternative therapeutic indications displayed antimicrobial properties toward the test strain in at least one screening condition. Of the active library antibiotics only four agents, rifampin, rifaximin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline, exhibited antimicrobial activity toward the organism during all screening conditions, whereas the remainder were inactive in > 1 condition; 56 antibiotics were inactive during serum growth, 25 and 38 were inactive toward lung surfactant grown and biofilm-associated cells, respectively, suggesting that subsets of antibiotics may outperform others in differing infection settings. Moreover, 9 antibiotics that are predominantly used for the treatment Gram-positive pathogens and 10 non-antibiotics lacked detectable antimicrobial activity toward A. baumannii grown in conventional medium but were active during > 1 alternative growth condition(s). Such agents may represent promising anti-Acinetobacter agents that would have likely been overlooked by antimicrobial whole cell screening assays performed in traditional laboratory screening media.
Colquhoun, J. M., Wozniak, R. A. F., & Dunman, P. M. (2015). Clinically relevant growth conditions alter Acinetobacter baumannii antibiotic susceptibility and promote identification of novel antibacterial agents. PLoS ONE, 10(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143033