Background: This study tested the superiority of combined cyclosporine A (CsA)-erythropoietin (EPO) therapy compared with either one in limiting brain infarction area (BIA) and preserving neurological function in rat after ischemic stroke (IS).Methods: Fifty adult-male SD rats were equally divided into sham control (group 1), IS plus intra-peritoneal physiological saline (at 0.5/24/48 h after IS) (group 2), IS plus CsA (20.0 mg/kg at 0.5/24h, intra-peritoneal) (group 3), IS plus EPO (5,000IU/kg at 0.5/24/48h, subcutaneous) (group 4), combined CsA and EPO (same route and dosage as groups 3 and 4) treatment (group 5) after occlusion of distal left internal carotid artery.Results: BIA on day 21 after acute IS was higher in group 2 than in other groups and lowest in group 5 (all p < 0.01). The sensorimotor functional test showed higher frequency of left turning in group 2 than in other groups and lowest in group 5 (all p < 0.05). mRNA and protein expressions of apoptotic markers and number of apoptotic nuclei on TUNEL were higher in group 2 than in other groups and lowest in group 1 and 5, whereas the anti-apoptotic markers exhibited an opposite trend (all p < 0.05). The expressions of inflammatory and oxidized protein were higher in group 2 than in other groups and lowest in group 1 and 5, whereas anti-inflammatory markers showed reversed changes in group 1 and other groups (all p < 0.05). The number of aquaporin-4+ and glial fibrillary acid protein+ stained cells were higher in group 2 as compared to other groups and lowest in groups 1 and 5 (all p < 0.01).Conclusion: combined treatment with CsA and EPO was superior to either one alone in protecting rat brain from ischemic damage after IS. ? 2011 Yuen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Yuen, C. M., Sun, C. K., Lin, Y. C., Chang, L. T., Kao, Y. H., Yen, C. H., … Yip, H. K. (2011). Combination of cyclosporine and erythropoietin improves brain infarct size and neurological function in rats after ischemic stroke. Journal of Translational Medicine, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-9-141