Combined 17β-estradiol with TCDD promotes M2 polarization of macrophages in the endometriotic milieu with aid of the interaction between endometrial stromal cells and macrophages

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Abstract

© 2015 Wang et al. The goal of this study is to elucidate the effects of 17β-estradiol and TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) on macrophage phenotypes in the endometriotic milieu. Co-culture of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and U937 cells (macrophage cell line) was performed to simulate the endometriotic milieu and to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol and/or TCDD on IL10, IL12 production and HLA-DR, CD86 expression by U937 macrophages. We found that combining 17β-estradiol with TCDD has a synergistic effect on inducing M2 activation when macrophages are co-cultured with ESCs. Moreover, the combination of 17β-estradiol and TCDD significantly enhanced STAT3 and P38 phosphorylation in macrophages. Differentiation of M2 macrophages induced by 17β-estradiol and TCDD were effectively abrogated by STAT3 and P38MAPK inhibitors, but not by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol and TCDD in the ectopic milieu may lead to the development of endometriosis by inducing M2 polarization of macrophages through activation of the STAT3 and P38MAPK pathways.

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Wang, Y., Chen, H., Wang, N. L., Guo, H. Y., Fu, Y., Xue, S., … Kuang, Y. (2015). Combined 17β-estradiol with TCDD promotes M2 polarization of macrophages in the endometriotic milieu with aid of the interaction between endometrial stromal cells and macrophages. PLoS ONE, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0125559

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