he model ofmusilanguage (Brown, 2000, 2017)requires a new musicological term torefer toits texture. Like choral singing, and unlike speech, musilanguage is based on simultaneous vocalization of multiple participants who reproduce the same signal (call) at random time intervals and pitch levels, akin to a wolf“chorus.1” Voiced utterances produce multiple pitches, generating a “jumbled” texture, similar to polyphony and heterophony, but not fully qualifying as such.
Nikolsky, A. (2018). Commentary: The ‘Musilanguage’ Model of Language Evolution. Frontiers in Psychology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00075