Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is one of the most promising contributors to net-zero energy buildings, while also increasing the aesthetic value of the built environment. Nevertheless, it currently is predominantly operating in a niche market of ~ 1% of the global photovoltaics market. In this paper we provide a thorough Multi Criteria Decision Analysis of the BIPV ecosystem (markets, stakeholders, and policy and legislation) in various European countries, i.e. the Netherlands, France, Germany, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Environmental legislation and building requirements were found to be similar, as all countries have the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) in common. It was found that implementation of the EPBD differs per country, evidenced by different support schemes in effect. Also, harmonisation of building codes hampers BIPV development. The analysis provides a basis for developing a BIPV ecosystem, which may differ per country. Also, clearly the BIPV sector crosses national boundaries, and should therefore be reviewed and developed from an international perspective.
Osseweijer, F. J. W., van den Hurk, L. B. P., Teunissen, E. J. H. M., & van Sark, W. G. J. H. M. (2018, July 1). A comparative review of building integrated photovoltaics ecosystems in selected European countries. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.03.001