Background. The efficacy of balloon dilatation as primary treatment for neonatal aortic coarctation remains controversial. Methods. A retrospective comparison between balloon angioplasty and surgery for the treatment of neonatal aortic coarctation was undertaken on 57 neonates younger than 40 days of age (angioplasty, 23 patients; surgery, 34 patients) treated between 1994 and 2004. Results. Cohorts were similar with respect to the preinterventional variables of age, weight, upper extremity systolic blood pressure, coarctation gradient, degree of aortic arch hypoplasia, associated conditions, and mean follow-up (angioplasty, 36 months; surgery, 38 months). Among the angioplasty group, 13 patients (57%) required surgery, and 8 required a second balloon dilatation, of whom 3 patients had an aortic aneurysm. Among the surgery cohort, 6 patients experienced recurrence (18%) after either SFA (3) or XETE anastomosis repair (3). All were successfully treated with balloon angioplasty. Actuarial freedom from any intervention was significantly greater in the surgery cohort as was the degree of aortic arch growth. At latest follow-up, antihypertensive medication was required in 3 of 9 angioplasty patients (33%) and 2 of 27 surgery patients (7%). No repeat intervention was required in the 13 patients who underwent angioplasty followed by surgery. Conclusions. Primary angioplasty is palliative treatment for neonatal aortic coarctation, but it is the treatment of choice for recurrence after surgery. Surgery for neonatal aortic coarctation is associated with fewer reinterventions, improved aortic arch growth, no aortic aneurysm formation, and decreased need for antihypertensive medication when compared with neonates treated primarily with balloon angioplasty. © 2005 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.
Fiore, A. C., Fischer, L. K., Schwartz, T., Jureidini, S., Balfour, I., Carpenter, D., … Johnson, R. G. (2005). Comparison of angioplasty and surgery for neonatal aortic coarctation. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 80(5), 1659–1665. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2005.03.143