Computed tomography (CT) is the method of choice for diagnosing ureteral stones - kidney stones that obstruct the ureter. The purpose of this study is to develop a computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm for identifying a ureteral stone in thin slice CT volumes. The challenge in CAD for urinary stones lies in the similarity in shape and intensity of stones with non-stone structures and how to efficiently deal with large high-resolution CT volumes. We address these challenges by using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that works directly on the high resolution CT volumes. The method is evaluated on a large data base of 465 clinically acquired high-resolution CT volumes of the urinary tract with labeling of ureteral stones performed by a radiologist. The best model using 2.5D input data and anatomical information achieved a sensitivity of 100% and an average of 2.68 false-positives per patient on a test set of 88 scans.
Längkvist, M., Jendeberg, J., Thunberg, P., Loutfi, A., & Lidén, M. (2018). Computer aided detection of ureteral stones in thin slice computed tomography volumes using Convolutional Neural Networks. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 97, 153–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2018.04.021