The content of certain ingredients of human milk, such as flavonoids, depend on the types and amounts of plant products consumed and may vary from woman to woman. The aim of the study was to determine to what extent consumption of an average amount of grapefruit juice (250 ml) affected naringenin content in human milk. A total of 14 breastfeeding mothers were included in the study. The subjects remained on a diet with restricted intake of naringenin for a total of five days except on the third day, when they drank a single serving of 250 ml of grapefruit juice. A considerable subject-to-subject variability in naringenin content was observed in both initial and subsequent determinations. Baseline concentration values, which may reflect naringenin content in the milk produced by the breastfeeding mother who eat an everyday (unmodified) diet, ranged from 420.86 nmol/l to 1568.89 nmol/l, with a mean of 823.24 nmol/l. Switching to the modified diet resulted in a decrease in naringenin concentrations to the mean value of 673.89 nmol/l measured 48 hours after the switch. The highest mean values were observed four and 12 hours after consumption of the juice, equal-ling 908.25 nmol/l (SD ± 676.84 nmol/l) and 868.96 nmol/l (SD ± 665.54 nmol/l), respectively. Naringenin is commonly found in human milk in quantities expressed in nmol/l, and its concentrations vary from woman to woman. Consumption of 250 ml of red grapefruit juice by breastfeeding mothers does not significantly alter naringenin concentrations in their milk.
Romaszko, E., Marzec-Wróblewska, U., Badura, A., & Buciński, A. (2017). Does consumption of red grapefruit juice alter naringenin concentrations in milk produced by breastfeeding mothers? PLoS ONE, 12(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185954