Transcription factors and chromatin-remodeling complexes are key determinants of embryonic stem cell(ESC) identity. Here, we demonstrate that BRD4, a member of the bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family of epigenetic readers, regulates the self-renewal ability and pluripotency of ESCs. BRD4 inhibition resulted in induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and commitment to the neuroectodermal lineage while reducing the ESC multidifferentiation capacity in teratoma assays. BRD4 maintains transcription of core stem cell genes such as OCT4 and PRDM14 by occupying their super-enhancers (SEs), large clusters of regulatory elements, and recruiting to them Mediator and CDK9, the catalytic subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), to allow Pol-II-dependent productive elongation. Our study describes a mechanism of regulation of ESC identity that could be applied to improve the efficiency of ESC differentiation.
Di Micco, R., Fontanals-Cirera, B., Low, V., Ntziachristos, P., Yuen, S. K., Lovell, C. D., … Hernando, E. (2014). Control of embryonic stem cell identity by brd4-dependent transcriptional elongation of super-enhancer-associated pluripotency genes. Cell Reports, 9(1), 234–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.08.055