A correlative imaging methodology was developed to accurately quantify bone formation in the complex lattice structure of additive manufactured implants. Micro computed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometry were combined, integrating the best features from both, while demonstrating the limitations of each imaging modality. This semi-automatic methodology registered each modality using a coarse graining technique to speed the registration of 2D histology sections to high resolution 3D μCT datasets. Once registered, histomorphometric qualitative and quantitative bone descriptors were directly correlated to 3D quantitative bone descriptors, such as bone ingrowth and bone contact. The correlative imaging allowed the significant volumetric shrinkage of histology sections to be quantified for the first time (~15 %). This technique demonstrated the importance of location of the histological section, demonstrating that up to a 30 % offset can be introduced. The results were used to quantitatively demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D printed titanium lattice implants.
Geng, H., Todd, N. M., Devlin-Mullin, A., Poologasundarampillai, G., Kim, T. B., Madi, K., … Lee, P. D. (2016). A correlative imaging based methodology for accurate quantitative assessment of bone formation in additive manufactured implants. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 27(6). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10856-016-5721-6