Objectives: Coffee (Coffea arabica) is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. Epidemiologic studies suggest coffee may prevent some chronic diseases and cancers. This study aims to assess the cost-utility of coffee consumption from a US consumer perspective. Methods: A cohort life-table analysis was developed to model life years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of coffee drinkers versus non-drinkers over a lifetime horizon. Age- and sex-specific incidence and mortality rates were used to model outcomes of chronic disease (Alzheimer's, depression/suicide, diabetes, heart failure, Parkinson's, stroke) and cancer (bladder, breast, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, leukemia, liver, oral, pancreatic, prostate). Relative risks of chronic diseases and cancers by cups of coffee consumed daily were obtained from meta-analyses of prospective cohort and case-control studies. Utility weights, baseline health care costs, and attributable disease costs were obtained from the literature. Costs per cup of coffee were estimated for home preparation and obtained from a national sample of low- and high-cost vendors. Incremental analyses were conducted by dose, cost, and sex. The model was validated by comparing predicted life-expectancy to data from studies examining allcause mortality of coffee consumption. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA) were conducted. Results: Coffee increased undiscounted LYs in 2, 4, and 6 cup/day male (0.29, 0.52, 0.70) and female (0.31, 0.54, 0.69) drinkers, respectively, compared to non-drinkers. Home preparation resulted in ICERs per discounted QALY of $36,031, $44,125, and $55,572 for male and $31,029, $37,779, and $46,280 for female drinkers, respectively, for 2, 4, and 6 cups/day. ICERs were higher for coffee purchased from low-cost vendors (> $50,000/QALY) and high-cost vendors (> $80,000/QALY). In the PSA, 4 and 6 cups/day were most likely cost-effective for males and females, respectively, at a $50,000/QALY threshold. Conclusions: Coffee consumption may be a cost-effective approach to improve health outcomes. Given the limitations of observational effectiveness data, additional research is warranted.
O’Day, K., Campbell, C. M., & Popelar, B. V. (2014). Cost-Utility Analysis of Coffee Consumption for Prevention of Chronic Disease and Cancer in the United States. Value in Health, 17(3), A91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2014.03.527