This paper provides the details of ice loading events that can be used to further the understanding of pack ice driving forces in the Beaufort Sea. Several methods have been reviewed and employed including in situ stress measurements, loads on the Molikpaq offshore caisson, shoreline pile-up events, pile-ups and rubble fields on offshore shoals and relic berms, analysis of shear walls on offshore rubble fields, and analysis of deep ridge keels. Over 50 different events are identified with 33 suitable for a pack ice analysis. The data are considered in terms of both the ISO 19906 (2010) Arctic Structures Standard and pack ice pressures that can be exerted across various widths. A new approach is proposed, in which the calculated and measured values from past pack ice pressure events are used to predict limit force.
Timco, G. W., Sudom, D., Frederking, R., Barker, A., & Wright, B. D. (2017). A critical review of Arctic pack ice driving forces: New sources of data. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 138, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2017.02.010