The limited node capabilities typical of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) call for cross-layer design optimization. In this paper, we address the problem of designing and operating long-lasting surveillance mobile target detection applications for unattended WSNs with a priori knowledge of the nodes' positions. In particular, we focus on the cross-layer interaction between the sensing layer (devoted to the detection of a mobile target crossing the monitored area) and the communication layer (devoted to the transmission of the alert, upon detection, from a sensing node to the network sink). The performance of the sensing layer is characterized by the probability of target missed detection and the delay before the first sensor detection act. The communication layer is investigated considering two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols: X-MAC  and the novel Cascade (Cas)-MAC protocol, inspired by the principles of the D-MAC protocol . At both layers, we validate analytical models through realistic simulations and experiments. The cross-layer interaction between the two layers is achieved considering a proper model for the network lifetime, based on the average energy depletion at the node level. Finally, to highlight the benefits of the proposed framework, we present a cross-layer optimization approach for the configuration of the system parameters, considering several relevant network topologies. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Medagliani, P., Ferrari, G., Gay, V., & Leguay, J. (2013). Cross-layer design and analysis of WSN-based mobile target detection systems. Ad Hoc Networks, 11(2), 712–732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2011.07.009