Nano-catalysts containing copper–cobalt oxides (Cu–Co–O) have been synthesized by the citric acid (CA) complexing method. Copper (II) nitrate and Cobalt (II) nitrate were employed in different molar ratios as the starting reactants to prepare three types of nano-catalysts. Well crystalline nano-catalysts were produced after a period of 3 hours by the calcination of CA–Cu–Co–O precursors at 550 °C. The phase morphologies and crystal composition of synthesized nano-catalysts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) methods. The particle size of nano-catalysts was observed in the range of 90 nm–200 nm. The prepared nano-catalysts were used to formulate propellant samples of various compositions which showed high reactivity toward the combustion of HTPB/AP-based composite solid propellants. The catalytic effects on the decomposition of propellant samples were found to be significant at higher temperatures. The combustion characteristics of composite solid propellants were significantly improved by the incorporation of nano-catalysts. Out of the three catalysts studied in the present work, CuCo-I was found to be the better catalyst in regard to thermal decomposition and burning nature of composite solid propellants. The improved performance of composite solid propellant can be attributed to the high crystallinity, low agglomeration and lowering the decomposition temperature of oxidizer by the addition of CuCo-I nano-catalyst.
Rao, D. C. K., Yadav, N., & Joshi, P. C. (2016). Cu–Co–O nano-catalysts as a burn rate modifier for composite solid propellants. Defence Technology, 12(4), 297–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dt.2016.01.001