Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is on the rise due to the prevalence of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Although there are surgical and chemotherapy treatment avenues the mortality rate of HCC remains high. Immunotherapy is currently the new frontier of cancer treatment and the immunobiology of HCC is emerging as an area for further exploration. The tumor microenvironment coexists and interacts with various immune cells to sustain the growth of HCC. Thus, immunosuppressive cells play an important role in the anti-tumor immune response. This review will discuss the current concepts of immunosuppressive cells, including tumor-associated macrophages, marrow-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated neutrophils, cancer-associated fibroblasts, and regulatory T cell interactions to actively promote tumorigenesis. It further elaborates on current treatment modalities and future areas of exploration.
Lu, C., Rong, D., Zhang, B., Zheng, W., Wang, X., Chen, Z., & Tang, W. (2019). Current perspectives on the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma: Challenges and opportunities. Molecular Cancer, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12943-019-1047-6