Toxicity to Raji cells of the xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine system is related to the formation of single-strand DNA breaks. DNA damage was proportional to the concentration of xanthine oxidase and to the time of exposure. It was prevented by the absence of hypoxanthine, or by the presence of allopurinol, or both superoxide dismutase and catalase. The release of 51Cr from damaged cells was detectable 12h after the inhibition of cloning efficiency and the production of DNA breakage. These data suggest that DNA damage induced by the oxygen products precedes the severe lesion to the cellular membrane. © 1991.
Chiricolo, M., Tazzari, P. L., Abbondanza, A., Dinota, A., & Battelli, M. G. (1991). Cytotoxicity of, and DNA damage by, active oxygen species produced by xanthine oxidase. FEBS Letters, 291(2), 173–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(91)81276-E