Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Chilean Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture: Emergence of low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 and re-emergence of virulent ISAV-HPR: HPR3 and HPR14

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Abstract

Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is caused by virulent ISAV strains with deletions in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the hemagglutinin- esterase (HE) protein (designated virulent ISAV-HPR). This study shows the historic dynamics of ISAV-HPR and ISAV-HPR0 in Chile, the genetic relationship among ISAV-HPR0 reported worldwide and between ISAV-HPR0 and ISAV-HPR in Chile, and reports the 2013 ISA outbreak in Chile. The first ISA outbreak in Chile occurred from mid-June 2007 to 2010 and involved the virulent ISAV-HPR7b, which was then replaced by a low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 variant. We analyzed this variant in 66 laboratory-confirmed ISAV-HPR0 cases in Chile in comparison to virulent ISAV-HPR that caused two new ISA outbreaks in April 2013. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of HE sequences from all ISAV-HPR0 viruses allowed us to identify three genomic clusters, which correlated with three residue patterns of ISAV-HPR0 (§ssup§360§esup§PST§ ssup§362§esup§, §ssup§360§esup§PAN§ ssup§362§esup§ and §ssup§360§esup§PAT§ ssup§362§esup§) in HPR. The virus responsible for the 2013 ISAV-HPR cases in Chile belonged to ISAV-HPR3 and ISAV-HPR14, and in phylogenetic analyses, both clustered with the ISAV-HPR0 found in Chile. The ISAV-HPR14 had the ISAV-HPR0 residue pattern §ssup§360§esup§ PAT§ssup§362§esup§, which is the only type of ISAV-HPR0 variant found in Chile. This suggested to us that the 2013 ISAV-HPR re-emerged from ISAV-HPR0 that is enzootic in Chilean salmon aquaculture and were not new introductions of virulent ISAV-HPR to Chile. The clinical presentations and diagnostic evidence of the 2013 ISA cases indicated a mixed infection of ISAV with the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi and the bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, which underscores the need for active ISAV surveillance in areas where ISAV-HPR0 is enzootic, to ensure early detection and control of new ISA outbreaks, as it is considered a risk factor. This is the first report of ISA linked directly to the presence of ISAV-HPR0, and provides strong evidence supporting the contention that ISAV-HPR0 shows a strong relationship to virulent ISAV-HPR viruses and the possibility that it could mutate to virulent ISAV-HPR. © 2013 Godoy et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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Godoy, M. G., Kibenge, M. J., Suarez, R., Lazo, E., Heisinger, A., Aguinaga, J., … Kibenge, F. S. (2013). Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Chilean Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture: Emergence of low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 and re-emergence of virulent ISAV-HPR: HPR3 and HPR14. Virology Journal, 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-10-344

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