This study investigated the effects of hydroxyurea (HU) on hematological, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in association with βS haplotype and α-thalassemia. We included 22 children with SCA who were followed for an average of 14.5 months. Laboratory parameters were assessed by electronic methods, and molecular analysis was investigated by PCR-RFLP and allele-specific PCR. Results showed significant increases in hemoglobin, HbF, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, glucose, HDL-C and albumin levels, as well as significant decreases in MCHC and AST levels, WBC, neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and reticulocytes, in children during HU therapy. HbF levels were positively correlated with hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV and total protein, yet negatively correlated with MCHC, RDW, AAT and AST during HU therapy (p<0.05). Children who carried the Central African Republic haplotype, in response to HU therapy, presented significant increases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, triglycerides and uric acid levels, as well as significant decreases in MCHC, AST and direct bilirubin levels, WBC, neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and reticulocytes. Those with the Benin haplotype presented increases in HbF and albumin levels, and a reduction in platelet counts (p<0.05). Children with α-thalassemia presented decreased ALT during HU use, while those without this deletion presented increases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH, HDL-C and albumin, as well as decreases in MCHC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, reticulocytes and AST (p<0.05). Hence, regardless of its use in association with βS haplotypes or α-thalassemia, HU seems to be linked to alterations in hemolytic, inflammatory, hepatic, lipid and glycemic profiles.
Yahouédéhou, S. C. M. A., da Guarda, C. C., Figueiredo, C. V. B., Santiago, R. P., Carvalho, S. P., Fiuza, L. M., … Goncalves, M. S. (2019). Hydroxyurea alters hematological, biochemical and inflammatory biomarkers in Brazilian children with SCA: Investigating associations with βS haplotype and α-thalassemia. PLoS ONE, 14(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218040