Epidemiological evidence suggests a role for vitamin D in type 2 diabetes prevention. We investigated the effects of vitamin Dsupplementation on glucose metabolism and inflammation in subjects with prediabetes. A 5-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention with three arms (placebo, 40 g/d, or 80 g/d vitamin D was carried out among sixty-eight overweight (BMI 25-35) and aging (≥60 years) subjects from Finland, with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L and either impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Analyses included 66 subjects who completed the trial. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by fasting and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test-derived indices and glycated hemoglobin. Inflammation was evaluated by high-sensitive C-reactive protein and five cytokines. Although a dose-dependent increase in serum 25(OH)Dover the supplementation period was observed (P trend < 0.001), there were no other statistically significant differences in changes in the 13 glucose homeostasis indicators between the study groups other than increase in the 120 min glucose concentration (P trend = 0.021) and a decreasing trend both in 30 min plasma insulin (P trend = 0.030) and glycated hemoglobin (P trend = 0.024) concentrations. A borderline statistically significant decreasing trend in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist concentration was observed (P = 0.070). Vitamin Dsupplementation does not improve glucose metabolism in ageing subjects with prediabetes but may have modest anti-inflammatory effects.
Tuomainen, T. P., Virtanen, J. K., Voutilainen, S., Nurmi, T., Mursu, J., De Mello, V. D. F., … Uusitupa, M. (2015). Glucose Metabolism Effects of Vitamin D in Prediabetes: The VitDmet Randomized Placebo-Controlled Supplementation Study. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/672653