Although France has never used and still does not use the phrase ‘water security’, water security policies have indeed been designed and implemented in France since the 1960s, focusing on governance issues. The national level is largely in charge of flood risk management, local authorities are responsible for drinking water supply and sanitation security, and the basin scale has been chosen as the core level for integrated water resources management. A comprehensive set of decision-making, planning, and financing tools regulate the balance and constant adaptation of water management in each of the six basins. The ‘water user pays’ and ‘water pays for water’ principles have been providing a secured investment capacity for water management and infrastructure improvement.
Tardieu, E. (2018). Global water security: Lessons learnt and long-term implications in France. In Water Resources Development and Management (pp. 185–215). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7913-9_8