The morpho-anatomy of the micro-predator Huttonella bicolor (Hutton, 1838) is investigated in detail. The species is a micro-predator snail, which is splaying in tropical and subtropical areas all over the world, the first report being from the Amazon Rainforest region of northern Brazil. The shell is very long, with complex peristome teeth. The radula bears sharp pointed teeth. The head lacks tentacles, bearing only ommatophores. The pallial cavity lacks well-developed vessels (except for pulmonary vessel); the anus and urinary aperture are on pneumostome. The kidney is solid, with ureter totally closed (tubular); the primary ureter is straight, resembling orthurethran fashion. The buccal mass has an elongated and massive odontophore, of which muscles are described; the odontophore cartilages are totally fused with each other. The salivary ducts start as one single duct, bifurcating only prior to insertion. The mid and hindguts are relatively simple and with smooth inner surfaces; there is practically no intestinal loop. The genital system has a zigzag-fashioned fertilization complex, narrow prostate, no bursa copulatrix, short and broad vas deferens, and simple penis with gland at distal tip. The nerve ring bears three ganglionic masses, and an additional pair of ventral ganglia connected to pedal ganglia, interpreted as odontophore ganglia. These features are discussed in light of the knowledge of other streptaxids and adaptations to carnivory.
Simone, L. R. L. (2013). Anatomy of predator snail huttonella bicolor, an invasive species in Amazon Rainforest, Brazil (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae). Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia, 53(3), 47–58. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0031-10492013000300001