Cross-sectional analysis of serum calcium levels for associations with left ventricular hypertrophy in normocalcemia individuals with type 2 diabetes

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Abstract

Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent studies show that an increase in albumin-adjusted serum calcium level is associated with an elevated risk of T2DM. We speculate that increased serum calcium levels in T2DM patients are related to LVH prevalence. Methods: In this echocardiographic study, 833 normocalcemia and normophosphatemia patients with T2DM were enrolled. The associations between serum calcium and metabolic parameters, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), as well as the rate of LVH were examined using bivariate linear correlation, multivariate linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. The predictive performance of serum calcium for LVH was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Patients with LVH have significantly higher serum calcium than those without LVH. Serum calcium was positively associated with total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum uric acid, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that serum calcium was independently associated with LVMI (p < 0.001). In comparison with patients in the lowest serum calcium quartile, the odds ratio (OR) for LVH in patients in the highest quartile was 2.909 (95% CI 1.792-4.720; p < 0.001). When serum calcium was analyzed as a continuous variable, per 1 mg/dl increase, the OR (95% CI) for LVH was [2.400 (1.552-3.713); p < 0.001]. Serum calcium can predict LVH (AUC = 0.617; 95% CI (0.577-0.656); p < 0.001). Conclusions: Albumin-adjusted serum calcium is associated with an increased risk of LVH in patients with T2DM.

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Li, J., Wu, N., Li, Y., Ye, K., He, M., & Hu, R. (2015). Cross-sectional analysis of serum calcium levels for associations with left ventricular hypertrophy in normocalcemia individuals with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-015-0200-9

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